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Condiciones Logísticas Importer of Record(IOR)

Fecha de registroNOV 30, 2023

Importer of Record(IOR)
The Importer of Record (IOR) plays a critical role in the international import process. As the legally declared importer, the IOR is responsible for ensuring compliance with all import regulations and paying any duties and taxes owed on imported goods. While seemingly straightforward, selecting and working with the right IOR requires careful consideration of trade compliance, financial liability, and supply chain efficiency. This guide will provide an in-depth explanation of IOR, including its definition, importance, and requirements.
  1. 1) What is on Importer of Record (IOR)?1) What is on Importer of Record (IOR)?

    The Importer of Record, commonly known as the IOR, acts as the designated authority during the critical phase of customs clearance when goods make their journey into a new country. This role can be assumed by either a company or an individual, who is officially recognized as the importer. The responsibilities vested in the IOR are not only varied but also carry significant legal weight.

    As the legal importer, the IOR is responsible for:

    Paying any import duties and taxes on the products

    Ensuring the products meet all legal requirements in the destination country

    Handling any legal issues related to the import

    The IOR is an essential role in cross-border trade. Every shipment imported into a country must have an IOR registered during customs clearance. In the grand scheme of cross-border trade, the role of the IOR is not just functional but fundamental. Each shipment that crosses international borders requires a registered IOR during customs clearance, acting as the linchpin that ensures the seamless transition of goods across territorial lines. This role, therefore, is integral to maintaining the flow of global commerce, acting as a bridge that connects different markets, cultures, and regulatory environments.

    Coins, calculators, and documentation images (Source : Firefly, Adobe)
  2. 2) Key Responsibilities2) Key Responsibilities

    1. Payment of Duties and Taxes
    The IOR is financially liable for payment of any duties, taxes, and fees levied on imported goods as they enter the destination country. This includes:

    mport duties - Taxes charged on imported goods based on tariff classification and trade agreements. Duties are typically calculated as a percentage of the shipment value.

    Excise taxes - Additional taxes applied to select imported products such as alcohol, tobacco, fuels, and luxury goods. Excise tax rates vary based on the type of product.

    Merchandise processing fees - Small administrative fees levied by Customs on formal entries to offset administrative costs.

    Harbor maintenance fees - Charges collected on shipments arriving at U.S. ports by vessel to fund harbor maintenance and development.

    Bonded warehouse fees - Fees for storing goods in a bonded customs warehouse prior to formal customs entry.

    Additional inspection fees - Charges that may apply if Customs orders added shipment inspections.

    The amount owed depends on the goods classification, value, and country of origin among other factors. As IOR, it is critical to determine estimated duty and tax liability prior to import to avoid unexpected charges.

    2. Trade Compliance
    The IOR is accountable for regulatory compliance at the time of import. The IOR must ensure:

    Goods properly classified under the destination country's tariff schedule. Incorrect classification can lead to duty/tax penalties.

    Applicable trade program eligibility requirements are met. This includes free trade agreements, special trade programs, etc.

    Proper country of origin is declared based on substantial transformation rules.

    Value of imported items is correctly assigned for customs purposes.

    All licensing, permitting, and other import requirements are satisfied. Certain products require licenses/permits prior to formal entry.

    No prohibited or restricted items are contained in the shipment.

    Failure to meet trade compliance regulations can result in shipment delays, penalties, or even seizure of goods by customs authorities. As IOR, it is imperative to establish robust compliance practices.

    3. Customs Entry and Documentation
    The IOR is tasked with formally clearing shipments through customs at arrival. This necessitates submitting accurate entry paperwork along with any required documentation such as commercial invoices, packing lists, and origin certificates.

    Entry procedures vary based on destination country and shipment specifics. In the U.S., entry types include:

    Consumption Entry - Declaring goods that will remain in the U.S. market for sale or use. Most common entry type.

    Temporary Import Bond (TIB) - Temporary import of goods intended for re-export within a designated time frame.

    Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) Entry - Importing goods into an FTZ for storage, manufacturing, or re-export. Enables duty/tax deferral.

    In-bond Entry - Transporting goods "in-bond" to a U.S. inland port of entry under customs control.

    Selecting the appropriate entry type is imperative to avoid delays and added costs. The IOR is responsible for determining the optimal entry process based on the intended use of the imported goods.

    Paper containers, car and documentation images (Source : Firefly, Adobe)
  3. 3) Differences between Europe and the USA3) Differences between Europe and the USA

    The differences between Importer of Record (IOR) requirements in Europe and the USA for Amazon sellers are influenced by distinct customs, tax regulations, and market environments in these regions. Here's an overview:


    VAT Compliance: In Europe, Value Added Tax (VAT) is a significant consideration. Sellers must register for VAT in each EU country where they store or sell goods. The IOR is responsible for ensuring VAT is correctly calculated and paid.

    EORI Number: An Economic Operators Registration and Identification (EORI) number is required for importing goods into the EU. This is essential for customs clearance.

    Diverse Regulations: European countries have their own specific import regulations and standards, which can vary significantly. An IOR must be well-versed in the regulations of each country they are importing into.

    Data Protection Laws: Strict data protection laws in Europe, like GDPR, may affect how Amazon sellers and their IORs handle customer data during transactions.

    Environmental Regulations: Europe has stringent environmental regulations, including waste disposal and packaging standards, that the IOR must comply with.


    Customs Bond: In the U.S., a customs bond is often required for importing goods. This bond acts as a guarantee that all duties, taxes, and fees owed to the federal government will be paid.

    Harmonized Tariff Schedule: The U.S. uses the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) for classifying imported goods. Proper classification is crucial for determining applicable duties and taxes.

    Federal and State Regulations: Besides federal import regulations, individual states may have additional rules and taxes. The IOR needs to be aware of these when importing goods.

    FDA and Other Regulations: For certain products, such as food or healthcare items, compliance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory bodies is necessary.

    Country of Origin Marking: The U.S. has strict requirements on marking the country of origin on imported products, which the IOR must ensure is accurately done.

    Amazon sellers must carefully understand and adapt to the distinct IOR requirements and regulatory landscapes in Europe and the USA. This not only ensures compliance but also plays a significant role in the smooth operation and success of their international business ventures.

    Stacked containers and Earth images (Source : Firefly, Adobe)
  4. 4) Benefits and Risks of IOR Models4) Benefits and Risks of IOR Models

    For companies engaged in international trade, selecting the right IOR model is crucial for balancing risk exposure and supply chain control. There are three primary options:

    1. The U.S. Buyer
    The U.S. buyer (or consignee) is designated as the IOR at the time of import. This provides maximum control for the buyer but also the highest level of risk assumption. As IOR, the buyer is directly responsible for import compliance and payment of all duties/taxes to U.S. Customs.


    Full supply chain visibility and control: The U.S. buyer has direct control over the import process, allowing for better management of supply chains and timelines

    Compliance Assurance: As the IOR, the U.S. buyer can ensure compliance with U.S. import regulations and standards.

    Direct Communication: Simplifies communication with U.S. customs and other regulatory agencies.


    Increased Responsibility: The U.S. buyer bears all legal and financial responsibilities for compliance, taxes, and duties.

    Complexity: Managing import regulations and paperwork can be complex and time-consuming.

    Internal resource requirements: Dedicated trade compliance staff needed to manage IOR responsibilities.

    This model is best suited for very large importers with the resources to handle IOR compliance and risk exposure. It maximizes control but also liability.

    2. Foreign Supplier
    The foreign supplier (or shipper) is designated as the U.S. IOR at the time of export. This model minimizes risks for the buyer but reduces supply chain control.


    Simplicity for Buyer: The U.S. buyer has fewer responsibilities in the import process.

    Expertise: Foreign suppliers might have more experience in handling exports, including compliance with export regulations.

    Requires fewer buyer resources: No need for extensive trade compliance staff.


    Dependence on Supplier: Reliance on the supplier for compliance can be risky if the supplier is not well-versed in U.S. import regulations.

    Higher overall costs: Inefficient process often leads to excess taxes/duties which are passed onto the buyer through pricing.

    Potential Delays: Miscommunication or mismanagement by the foreign supplier can lead to delays and additional costs.

    This approach is well-suited for smaller companies that want to offshore IOR risks and resource needs. However, lack of control and inefficient duty management can result in higher costs.

    3. Freight Forwarder
    A specialized logistics provider is nominated as the IOR to facilitate the import process on the buyer's behalf. This enables outsourcing of IOR responsibilities while still maintaining buyer oversight.


    Expertise in Logistics: Freight forwarders specialize in the logistics of shipping goods, including customs clearance.

    Efficiency: Can streamline the process, potentially reducing shipping times and costs.

    Risk Management: They are experienced in managing risks associated with international transportation.

    Flexibility: Can offer more flexible solutions based on the specific needs of the shipment.


    Added Costs: May involve additional fees for their services.

    Indirect Control: The buyer and supplier have less direct control over the import process.

    This model enables small to mid-size buyers to balance control over the import process with mitigation of IOR risks and duties through leveraging a qualified forwarder.

    Images of women checking products with stacked containers and mobile devices (Source : Firefly, Adobe)
  5. 5) How to Select the Optimal IOR5) How to Select the Optimal IOR

    When selecting a third-party Importer of Record (IOR) service, especially for Amazon sellers, there are several key factors to consider to ensure a smooth and efficient import process:

    1. Experience and Reputation

    Proven Track Record: Seek a service that has demonstrated success in handling imports in your specific target market. This can include experience with the type of products you're selling and familiarity with the specific import regulations of the target country.

    Industry Reputation: Look for reviews, testimonials, and case studies from other sellers. A good reputation in the industry is often a sign of reliability and efficiency.

    Compliance Expertise: Ensure the service is well-versed in the legal and regulatory requirements of your target market to avoid costly errors or delays.

    2. Cost-Effectiveness

    Transparent Pricing: Understand all costs upfront. This includes service fees, customs duties, taxes, and any additional charges that might arise.

    Comparative Analysis: Shop around and compare the pricing of different IOR services. Be wary of prices that seem too good to be true, as they may not include all necessary services.

    Value for Money: Consider the value of the services provided against the cost. The cheapest option may not always be the best if it lacks essential services or support.

    3. Support and Communication

    Reliable Customer Support: Choose a provider that offers robust customer support. This is crucial for resolving any issues quickly and efficiently.

    Clear Communication: The ability to easily communicate with your IOR service is vital. This includes clarity in explaining processes, responsiveness to queries, and the ability to provide updates on your shipments.

    Language and Accessibility: If operating in a foreign market, consider if the service offers support in your preferred language and is easily accessible during your working hours.

    Additional Considerations

    Technology and Tracking: Advanced tracking systems and technology can provide real-time updates on your shipments, offering greater control and peace of mind.

    Customs Relationships: A good IOR service may have established relationships with customs authorities, which can be advantageous in smoothing the import process.

    Scalability: As your business grows, your IOR service should be able to scale with you, handling increased volumes and more complex logistical needs.

    Choosing the right third-party IOR service is a critical decision for Amazon sellers entering international markets. It's essential to balance cost, experience, and the level of support provided to ensure a successful and compliant import process.

    In conclusion, the successful expansion of an Amazon business into international markets is intricately tied to a comprehensive grasp of the Importer of Record (IOR) role. This understanding is pivotal not only in ensuring adherence to diverse and complex regulatory requirements but also in effectively navigating the multifaceted landscape of international trade. By mastering these aspects, businesses can confidently step into new markets, overcoming potential hurdles with ease and efficiency. Ultimately, this strategic approach fosters a conducive environment for growth and expansion, allowing your Amazon business to flourish in the global marketplace.