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Logistics Terms Container

Registration dateMAY 19, 2022

Logistics terms Container
  1. 1) Definition of Container1) Definition of Container
    1. The dictionary definition of a container is a sturdy box used to hold goods. Related to international transport, it is a standardized, rectangular box that can be used repeatedly, and it is defined as a transport box that realizes unit transport of cargo. In other words, a container refers to a box-type container used to transport cargo efficiently and economically.

      The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses the term “freight container,” and American Standards Institute (ANSI) uses the term “cargo container.”

      The size of the container is regulated by international maritime container standards. Specifically, a container varies according to the type of cargo handled such as general purpose, liquid, automobile, reefer, thermal insulation, and other uses. The size also differs depending on the transportation or utilization. Document forms related to containers include certification of container, container inspection form, CSC safety approval, etc.

  2. 2) Container Size and Appropriate Load Capacity and Weight2) Container Size and Appropriate Load Capacity and Weight
    1. ① 20FT

      The container size is 2.35m (width), 2.38m (height), and 5.86m (length). This is for general purpose.

      ② 40FT

      The container size is 2.35m (width), 2.38m (height), and 12.03m (length). This is twice the size of the 20 ft container. It can load about 25 tons, similar to the 20ft container, but twice the size does not mean it can ship more.

      In maritime transport, the weight of the cargo is the most important factor for safety. The maximum loadable weight of 20 ft and 40 ft containers are approximately 25 tons. Don’t assume that a 40 ft container can ship twice as much as a 20 ft container. (1ft is 30.48cm)

  3. 3) Types of Containers3) Types of Containers
    1. ① Classification by Structure and Purpose of Use
      1. Dry Container

        A dry container is the most typical container that does not require separate temperature control and transports general cargo. It is also called Cargo Container, and most of the containers we usually call correspond to this. There are two sliding doors on one side, and each door can be opened and closed at about 270 degrees. Synthetic rubber is coated around the door to protect the loaded cargo from various weather conditions.

    Dry Container Dry Container (Source: Clipart Korea)
      1. Reefer Container

        A reefer container is a container for transporting cargo that requires temperature control, such as agricultural and fishery products, livestock products, processed foods, and chemical drugs. It has the same dimensions as the dry container, but a special temperature control device is installed so that the temperature can be controlled between 26 degrees and -28 degrees.

    Reefer Container Reefer Container (Source: unsplash_jonas smith)
      1. Open Top Container

        An open top container is a container without a solid roof that is used to load oversized cargo. It is a container suitable for moving heavy cargo such as machinery and steel products.

    Open Top Container Open Top Container (Source: unsplash_rinson chory)
      1. Flat Rack Container

        A flat rack container has the shape of a dry container without a solid roof or left sidewall. Both walls are detachable, so it consists of only a floor and 4 pillars. It is also called a four-pillar container or a platform base container.

    Flat Rack Container Flat Rack Container (Source: iStock)
      1. ISO Tank Container

        It is a tank-type container used to transport liquids such as oil or medicine. It is made of non-corrosive steel or other corrosion-resistant material to provide a long lifecycle and material protection.

    ISO Tank Container ISO Tank Container (출처 : unsplash_bernd dittrich)
      1. Ventilated Container

        It is a container used to transport cargo that requires ventilation. There are ventilation holes at the top and bottom of the container for easy ventilation. It is mainly used to transport biological plants such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, and seeds.

    Ventilated Container Ventilated Container (Source: iStock)
      1. Insulated Container

        It is a container with a structure in which insulation and insulator with low thermal conductivity are placed on the front side. It is used to transport vegetables and fruits that are susceptible to temperature changes.

    Insulated Container Insulated Container (Source: iStock)
      1. Hanger Container

        It is a container designated to protect clothes by loading high-quality clothes on hangers.

    Hanger Container Hanger Container
      1. Solid Bulk Container

        It is a container with a hole in the roof and designed with fiber-reinforced plastic (RFP) inside to be suitable for transporting powdered cargo such as flour, feeds, and grains. The cargo is put in through 2~3 manholes installed on the roof. When unloading, it flows out through the hopper hole on the floor.

      2. Livestock Container

        It is a container designed to be convenient for the transport of biological animals. It is a processing device for feed or manure. It is also called a pen container.

    Livestock Container Livestock Container (Source: iStock)
      1. Open Side Container

        It is a container designed to open and close the side of the container for easy loading and unloading of long cargo. When handling open side containers, it is common to incur surcharges on sea freight rates.

    Open Side Container Open Side Container (Source: iStock)
      1. Car Rack Container

        A car rack container is almost similar in appearance to a flat rack container, but it is designed for the purpose of transporting vehicles only. There are one-stage loading and two-stage loading, but the two-stage is more widely used. It usually has no sidewalls and consists of a floor and a frame.

      2. Jumbo Container

        An ISO standard container is usually 8 feet 6 inches (2,591 mm) in height, but this container is 9 feet 6 inches (6,896 mm) container, which is 1 foot taller.

        Also called high cube containers, there are usually more in 40 ft containers than 20 ft containers. Due to its height, domestic traffic is restricted depending on the country.

    1. ② Classification by Material
      1. Aluminum Container

        It is a container made of aluminum. It is lightweight and is strong against corrosion. It does not rust, and it is flexible. However, it has a rivet structure, so there is a risk of leakage when the coupling part is loosened. The product price is high due to its high unit price.

      2. Steel Container

        It is a container made of steel and accounts for 90% of all containers. Since the entire container is manufactured by welding, there is no concern for leakage due to high water tightness, and the manufacturing cost is also low. However, the disadvantages are easy rusting and heavy weight.

      3. Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) Container

        It is a container in which FRP is glued to the surface of the plywood. It has the advantage of being strong and inexpensive. The frame is made of steel and it is common to make panels with FRP coated and laminated on both sides of the plywood.

  4. 4) Loading Unit of Container4) Loading Unit of Container
    1. ① Full Container Load (FCL)

      This refers to a container that is filled with the goods of one shipper. It has the disadvantage that is expensive for one shipper to monopolize one container; however, it is more advantageous for arrival within a set date or expedited shipping.

    2. ② Less than Container Load (LCL)

      This means that one shipper does not fill one container but loads the cargo of several shippers together. Unlike FCL, it has a relatively low shipping cost because it calculates only the volume and weight of the container. However, there is a disadvantage in that it takes a long time because the goods of several shippers must be collected and loaded.

    3. ③ Cubic Meter (CBM)

      CBM is an abbreviation of cubic meter and is a unit for converting a volume with a length, width, and height of 1 meter each. The freight rate is measured using CBM, and it can be said to be the most common standard for the product shipment.

    Open Side Container Open Side Container
    1. ④ KGS

      This is a commonly used unit, kg, with an additional s (plural form). It shows the actual weight of the product.

  5. 5) Other Terminologies5) Other Terminologies
    1. ① Consol

      This term is an abbreviation of consolidation, which refers to mixed transport. It also refers to the work of collecting small amounts of cargo (LCL cargo) that cannot fill one container to form one container.

    2. ② Piggy Back

      A method of transporting a truck or trailer loaded with containers on a rail (road + rail)

    3. ③ Fishy Back

      A method of transporting containers using trucks and ships (road + sea)

    4. ④ Birdy Back

      A method of transporting containers using trucks and aircraft (road + air)